社交媒体的政治力量 当假新闻影响选举
本文摘要:HONG KONG — Facebook rumors force a well-known politician to publish proof of his heritage. Fake images show a prominent female leader in a hangman’s noose. A politician’s aide decries violent crime with a Facebook photo of a girl’s corpse


HONG KONG — Facebook rumors force a well-known politician to publish proof of his heritage. Fake images show a prominent female leader in a hangman’s noose. A politician’s aide decries violent crime with a Facebook photo of a girl’s corpse — an image that turns out to come from another country.香港——Facebook上的传言被迫一位知名政治人物公开发表了证明自己身份的证据。在多张假造的图片中,一位甚有声望的女性领导人被刽子手套上了绞索。一位政界人物的助手利用Facebook上的一张照片——一个女孩的遗体——指责暴力犯罪,但事后证明,原本这张照片来自其他国家。

Another day on social media for Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton and Donald J. Trump? Think again.这又是贝拉克奥巴马、希拉里克林顿(Hillary Clinton)和唐纳德J特朗普(Donald J. Trump)在社交网络上的遭遇?未必。Those incidents took place in Indonesia and the Philippines, where social media’s outsize place in politics is widely acknowledged, even as that role is coming under sharper criticism in the United States.这些事情再次发生在印度尼西亚和菲律宾。这两个国家的社交媒体在政治中的巨大作用获得了普遍的接纳,尽管在美国,这种起到正在遭到更加严苛的谴责。

Well before last week’s American election threw Facebook’s status as a digital-era news source into the spotlight, leaders, advocacy groups and minorities worldwide have contended with an onslaught of online misinformation and abuse that have had real-world political repercussions. And for years, the social network did little to clamp down on the false news. 上周的美国议会选举将Facebook作为数字时代消息来源的地位推向了聚光灯下。早在那之前,世界范围内的领导人、提倡团体和少数族裔群体就仍然面对大量欺诈网络信息和侮辱,它们对真实世界造成了不当政治影响。多年来,社交网络基本上没诱导欺诈信息的措施。

Now Facebook, Google and others have begun to take steps to curb the trend, but some outside the United States say the move is too late. 现在,Facebook、谷歌(Google)其他一些社交媒体早已开始采取措施,意图遏止这一趋势,但美国以外的一些人回应为时已晚。“They should have done this way earlier,” said Richard Heydarian, a political analyst in the Philippines, one of Facebook’s fastest-growing markets. “We already saw the warning signs of this years ago.”“它们早该这么做到了,”菲律宾政治分析人士理查德海达里安(Richard Heydarian)说道。菲律宾是Facebook快速增长最慢的市场之一。

“多年前我们就早已看见令人警觉的迹象。”On Thursday, President Obama, speaking in Berlin and standing alongside Chancellor Angela Merkel, criticized Facebook and other social media for disseminating fake news. He became so impassioned that at one point he lost track of the question he was answering. 周四,奥巴马总统在德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)的会见下在柏林公开发表讲话时,谴责Facebook和其他社交媒体传播假新闻。他情绪兴奋,以至一度背离了正在问的问题。“If everything seems to be the same and no distinctions are made, then we won’t know what to protect,” Mr. Obama said.“如果所有东西看起来都一样,不加区分,那我们就无法告诉该维护什么,”奥巴马说道。

The impact of Facebook and other social media platforms on international elections is difficult to quantify. But Facebook’s global reach — roughly a quarter of the world’s population now has an account — is difficult to deny, political experts and academics say.Facebook和其他社交媒体平台对国际议会选举的影响是很难估量的。但政治专家和学者回应,Facebook的全球影响力——现在全球约四分之一的人享有Facebook账号——无法坚称。Some governments are pushing back, sometimes with undemocratic consequences. Ms. Merkel has said she is considering plans to force social networks to make public how they rank news online. Some African countries have banned the use of Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter before elections. Indonesia’s government has closed sites that it says promote fake news, though experts say some portals were also targeted for political reasons.一些政府正在展开反攻,有时不会导致不民主的后果。默克尔回应正在考虑到强制社交网络公开发表网络新闻名列方式。


一些非洲国家禁令在议会选举前用于Facebook、WhatsApp和Twitter。印尼政府重开了多个网站,称之为它们传播假新闻,但专家称之为一些门户网站也是因为政治原因而沦为目标的。Facebook said on Thursday that the social network was a place for people to stay informed and that what people saw in their news feed was overwhelmingly authentic. The Silicon Valley company previously denied that it failed to deal with misinformation and said it continues to monitor the social network so that it meets existing standards.Facebook周四回应,该社交网络是人们获取信息的地方,相提并论人们在自己的新闻启动时中看见的内容绝大部分都是现实的。

之前,这家坐落于硅谷的公司坚称自己对欺诈信息不作为。该公司回应不会之后监控该社交网络,以合乎现有标准。“I think the idea that fake news on Facebook, which is a very small amount of the content, influenced the election in any way — I think is a pretty crazy idea,” Mark Zuckerberg, the company’s chief executive, told a tech conference days after the American presidential election. “Voters make decisions based on their lived experience.”“我实在,指出Facebook上的假新闻以某种方式影响了议会选举是十分可怕的点子,那些内容的数量十分小,”美国议会选举完结几天后,该公司首席执行官马克扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)在一次科技会议上说道。“选民不会根据生活中的经验做出要求。

”Facebook’s power is often stronger overseas than it is in the United States. In many developing countries with populations new to both democracy and social media, experts said, fake stories can be more widely believed. And in some of these countries, Facebook even offers free smartphone data connections to basic public online services, some news sites and Facebook itself — but limits access to broader sources that could help debunk fake news.Facebook在国外的影响力一般来说比在美国更大。专家说道,在许多发展中国家,民主和社交媒体对民众来说是新鲜事物,假新闻不会更为广泛地被信以为真。

在其中一些国家,Facebook甚至免费获取将智能手机数据与基本的公共在线服务机构、部分新闻网站和Facebook自己连接起来的服务,但容许用户认识更加普遍的消息来源。后者有可能有助识破假新闻。One such place is the Philippines, where a spokesman for its populist president, Rodrigo Duterte, shared on Facebook an image of a corpse of a young girl believed to have been raped and killed by a drug dealer. Fact checkers later revealed that the photo had come from Brazil. Despite the debunking, proponents of Mr. Duterte’s bloody crackdown on reported drug dealers and addicts still cite the image in his defense, according to political analysts.菲律宾乃是这样一个地方。

该国的民粹主义总统罗德里戈杜特地(Rodrigo Duterte)的发言人在Faebook上共享了一张照片,上面是一名年长女孩的遗体,据信是被一名毒贩命案的。调查人员后来透漏,只不过这张照片来自巴西。据政治分人士讲解,尽管真凶被识破,但反对杜特地血腥反抗被检举毒贩和瘾君子的人,仍然用这张照片为他申辩。Tens of thousands of Philippine Facebook users also recently shared a story claiming that NASA had voted Mr. Duterte “the best president in the solar system.” While many commenters on the Facebook post took it as a joke, some appeared to take it seriously. And an image of Leila de Lima, a local lawmaker and a critic of Mr. Duterte, depicted her facing a hangman’s noose. 最近,菲律宾数万名Facebook用户还共享了一则声称美国航空航天局(NASA)票选杜特地为“太阳系最卓越的总统”的新闻。

尽管在Facebook上的这篇帖子下面facebook的很多人都把它当作笑话,但一些人或许上当了。此外,在一张图片中,菲律宾议员、对杜特地所持抨击意见的莱拉德利马(Leila de Lima)被人套上了绞索。“Facebook hasn’t led to empowerment of the average citizen, but empowerment of professional propagandists, fringe elements and conspiracy theorists,” said Mr. Heydarian, the Philippines political analyst. “Voices that were lurking in the shadows are now at the center of the public discourse.”“Facebook未带给普通公民的赋权,倒是助长了职业政治宣传、边缘分子和阴谋论者的力量,”菲律宾政治分析人士海达里安说道。

“过去潜入在阴影中的声音,现在出了公共话语的中心。”In Indonesia, where Facebook is so popular that some people confuse it with the broader internet, the service has considerable sway. Facebook在印尼近于热门,以至于一些人把它等同于为整个互联网。在那里,Facebook享有相当大的影响力。

When Joko Widodo, Indonesia’s president, was running for office in 2014, he was accused through social media of being a Chinese Christian and a communist — severe criticism in the deeply Islamic country. The Indonesian politician released his marriage certificate to prove he wasn’t Chinese and made a pilgrimage to Mecca just before voting.在2014年竞选时,印尼总统佐科威多多(Joko Widodo)在社交媒体上被指是一名华裔基督徒和共产主义者。在一个伊斯兰教深入人心的国家,这是极为严苛的批评。为了证明自己不是华裔,这位印尼政治人物公开发表了自己的结婚证书,还在议会选举前夕前往麦加朝圣。


“The fake news had a very big impact in our campaign,” said Tubagus Ramadhan, who helped Mr. Widodo run his social media campaign during the election.“假新闻对我们的竞选影响十分大,”在议会选举期间协助威多多管理社交媒体活动的图巴古斯拉马丹(Tubagus Ramadhan)说道。Even in long-established democracies like Germany, Spain and Italy, false news reports and hate speech on social media have whipped up grass-roots populist movements, which have often targeted the recent influx of Middle Eastern refugees, to garner wider electoral support.即便是在德国、西班牙和意大利等历史悠久的民主国家,社交媒体上的欺诈新闻报道和仇恨言论也在鼓动草根阶层的民粹主义运动。它们经常将目标对准最近大量涌进的中东难民,以在议会选举中取得更加普遍的反对。

Now, many European politicians are questioning what role social media has had in deciding what voters can and cannot see. They also have forced social networks like Facebook, Twitter and Google to sign up for voluntary — so far — standards to police hate speech online.现在,很多欧洲政治人物批评,社交媒体在要求选民能看见和看到的内容上扮演着什么角色。他们还被迫Facebook、Twitter和谷歌等社交网络亲笔签名反对监控网络仇恨言论的标准。涉及标准目前归属于强迫性质。In Germany, Ms. Merkel’s push to require American social network companies to publish how they rank news is intended to give voters greater control over what they read online.在德国,默克尔企图拒绝美国社交网络公司发布新闻名列方式,借此让选民对自己在网上看见的内容有更大的控制权。

“Algorithms must be more transparent,” Ms. Merkel has said, “so that interested citizens are also aware of what actually happens with their own media behavior and that of others.”“算法必需更为半透明,”默克尔说道。“这样涉及的公民也不会对自己和其他人的媒介不道德有更加确切的意识。